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Chemical Testing

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Chemical Testing - Services - Chromatography Analysis
Chromatography Analysis

It is a well know fact that chromatographic techniques are indispensable when it comes to characterising chemicals which are present in minute amount at parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb) levels. At the Material Characterisation Unit (MCU) of Malaysian Rubber Board (MRB), the chromatography group is actively involved in solving clients' problems with regards to identification and quantification of minute amount of chemicals and compounds present in their rubber-based products and latex dipped goods with the help of various chromatographic techniques such as TLC, GC-TEA, GC-FID, GC-MSD, HSS-FID and HPLC. All the instruments are manned by experienced staff that are well-versed with the instruments as well as with the nature of work that goes along with each sample.

The much publicised volatile and semi-volatile nitrosamines in rubber products can be determined at very low levels of parts per billion (ppb) by using a dedicated gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a specific detector namely TEA (Thermo-Energy Analyzer). The limit of detection is 1 g/kg or 1 ppb.

Gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector is also available for identification of components in organic mixtures, solvent systems and some petroleum products. It also useful for characterising various types of phthalates that is present in vinyl gloves as well as other rubber products and latex-dipped goods. Analysis of regulated items like poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which is present in some rubber products like rubber mat and tyres can be accurately identified and quantified by using GC-MSD.

Full characterisation of higher fatty acid (HFA) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) that are present in some latex compounds and compounding ingredients is done by using gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with flame-ionisation detector (FID).

High performance liquid chromatograph is quite indispensable when identification of non-volatile materials such as some of the compounding ingredients in vulcanisate extracts is needed. It is useful when determinations of residual and extractable chemicals in rubber goods are required.

A rapid and qualitative analysis of dithiocarbamate accelerators, alkylated and styrenated phenol anti-oxidants and other organic compounding ingredients can be performed using thin layer chromatography (TLC). This technique is also useful when a small quantity of an unknown chemical is needed to be identified, such as in the case of identification of small amount of surface organic contaminants eg. blooms. Active ingredients in commercial compounds such as ethephon in a latex stimulant and glyphosate in herbicides can be easily identified by using TLC.

Gas chromatograph
Gas Chromatograph - Thermo-Energy Analyzer (TEA) Gas Chromatograph - Mass Selective Detector (GC-MSD) Gas Chromatograph - Flame Ionisation Detector (GC-FID)
Thermo-Energy Analyzer (TEA) Mass Selective Detector (GC-MSD) Flame Ionisation Detector (GC-FID)
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Thin Layer Chromatograph (TLC)
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Thin Layer Chromatograph (TLC)

Analysis offered

  1. Identification and Quantification of Chemical Residues in Rubber Products and Latex Dipped Goods.
  2. Full Characterisation of HFA and VFA
  3. Identification of Components in Organic Mixtures.
  4. Identification of Components in Solvent Systems.
  5. Identification of Components in Petroleum Products.
  6. Characterisation of Phthalates in Rubber Products and Latex-Dipped Goods.
  7. Identification of PAHs in Rubber Products and Latex-Dipped Goods.
  8. Nitrosamines Analysis Up to 7 different types of Volatile Nitrosamines as well as Semi Volatile Amine from Rubber and Rubber Products can be determined and quantified simultaneously

Methods available

  1. UPB/P/003a: Identification and Quantification of residual chemicals, which can be extracted from rubber and rubber products by hot water. (ZDEC, ZDBC, ZPMC and MBT)
  2. UPB/P/003b: Identification and Quantification of residual chemicals, which can be extracted from rubber and rubber products by neutral, acidic and alkaline buffer solutions. (ZDEC, ZDBC, ZPMC and MBT)
  3. UPB/P/003c: Identification and Quantification of residual chemicals, which can be extracted from rubber and rubber products by neutral, acidic and alkaline buffer solutions following part of EN 455-3 : 1995 method. (ZDEC, ZDBC, ZPMC and MBT)
  4. UPB/P/003d: Determination of chemicals purity of Tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD) and Zinc Diethyl Dithiocarbamate (ZDEC).
  5. UPB/P/003e: Determination of chemicals purity of Glyphosate.
  6. ISO 1407:1992 Method B: Determination of Solvent Extract.
  7. UPB/P/013 (following BGA method): Identification and Quantification of volatile N-nitrosamines and nitrosatable amines which can be extracted by artificial saliva.
  8. UPB/P/014 (following FDA method): Identification and Quantification of volatile N-nitrosamines which can be extracted by dichloromethane (DCM).
  9. UPB/P/002: Identification of accelerators and antioxidants in cured and uncured rubber compounds by thin layer chromatography.
  10. UPB/P/032: Identification and Quantification of higher fatty acids (HFA) (C12, C14, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3) in latex and dry rubber samples.


Dr Faridah Hanim Ab Hanan
Ms Kartini Alias
Dr Rosmahani Che Isa

Group Supervisor:

Mr Hasnan B. Basiron

Research Assistants:

Mr Iswardi Norman
Mr Shukri Abdul Wahab
Ms Norleza Rashid
Ms Aminah Ayub
Ms Mas Ruhaiza Mohd Ruah


Head of Materials Characterisation Unit
Malaysian Rubber Board
260, Jalan Ampang
50450 Kuala Lumpur
(Attn: Dr Faridah Hanim Ab Hanan)

Tel: 603-9206 3671 (Dr Faridah Hanim)
      603-9206 3675 (Ms Kartini Alias)
      603-9206 3676 (Dr Rosmahani)
      603-9206 3682 (Chromatography Lab)
      603-9206 3680 (New Chromatography Lab)
Fax: 603-4251 9213
Email: fhanim@lgm.gov.my / kartinia@lgm.gov.my / rosmahani@lgm.gov.my / upb-chromatography@lgm.gov.my / upb-nitrosamines@lgm.gov.my

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